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Why women live longer than men?

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Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown in the past? There isn't much evidence and we have only partial answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men today, but not previously, has to do with the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half one year.

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In rich countries the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.
asked 6 days ago by MalindaMendo (220 points)

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