Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today and how have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure what the contribution to each of these variables is.
We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1
It is interesting to note that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half one year.
The advantage women had in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend: علامات الحمل بولد
Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage
in terms of life expectancy used be quite small but it increased substantially during the last century.
You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.